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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 190-195

Variations in canal morphology, shapes, and positions of major foramen in maxillary and mandibular teeth

1 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Mahatma Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Dental Sciences, Puducherry, India
2 Department of Dentistry, Tezpur Medical College and Hospital, Tezpur, Assam, India
3 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, RVS Dental College and Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
4 Intern, Drs Sudha and Nageswara Rao Siddhartha Institute of Dental Sciences, Chinoutpalli, Gannavaram Mandal, Andhra Pradesh, India
5 Consultant Pedodontist and Preventive Dentist, Tezpur, Assam, India
6 Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Division of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, University of Ha'il, Ha'il, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
7 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saraswati-Dhanwantari Dental College and Hospital and Post Graduate Research Institute, Parbhani, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Abhishek Singh Nayyar
44, Behind Singla Nursing Home, New Friends' Colony, Model Town, Panipat - 132 103, Haryana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_41_20

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Context and Aim: A plethora of studies have revealed that there is a lack of general consensus in the precise anatomic detailing of the canals and the major foramen in both the maxillary and mandibular teeth while emphasizing the significance of the same for a successful endodontic treatment. The aim of the present study was to determine the variations in canal morphology, shapes, and positions of major foramen in maxillary and mandibular teeth. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 420 extracted human maxillary and mandibular teeth with completely formed apices were included. The specimens were cleaned for surface debris including remnants of periodontal tissue and were stored in saline. Examination of the apices was performed with the help of stereomicroscope for their exact shapes and configurations and precise anatomic location. Comparison of different parameters within the group was done using Chi-square test while P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results of the present study indicated that apical foramen in mandibular teeth showed higher degree of deviation with a prevalence of 70.2% while flat shape of apical foramen was observed only in maxillary teeth. Furthermore, maximum deviation in maxillary teeth was recorded in the canines with a prevalence of 90% while, in mandibular teeth, maximum deviation was recorded with mandibular second premolars with a prevalence of 79.12%. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that deviation of apical foramen from the root apex was seen in 68.2% of the specimens. Furthermore, deviation was greater in the mandibular than the maxillary teeth.

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