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Table of Contents
CASE REPORT
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 93-95

Giant cell tumor of clavicle in an elderly: Rare presentation of a common tumor with review of literature; 1980–2020


Department of Pathology, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, New Delhi, India

Date of Submission30-Sep-2020
Date of Acceptance31-Oct-2020
Date of Web Publication08-Sep-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shilpi More
Assistant Professor, ESIC Medical College and Hospital, Faridabad, Haryana
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jmau.jmau_100_20

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  Abstract 


Giant cell tumor (GCT), also known as osteoclastoma, is a locally aggressive benign tumor arising in the epiphysis of bone. It accounts for 3%–8% of all bone tumors. About 75%–90% of GCTs occur in long tubular bones with more than 50% arising in the distal femur and proximal tibia. Flat bone involvements such as ribs, skull, patella, sternum, and clavicle are rare. Sixty–seventy percent of patients with GCT are between 20 and 40 years of age, rarely affecting too young or too old. We present here an unusual case of GCT of the clavicle in a 62-year-old female.

Keywords: Bone tumors, clavicle, giant cell tumor, osteoclastoma


How to cite this article:
Garg N, Tanveer N, More S, Chauhan S. Giant cell tumor of clavicle in an elderly: Rare presentation of a common tumor with review of literature; 1980–2020. J Microsc Ultrastruct 2022;10:93-5

How to cite this URL:
Garg N, Tanveer N, More S, Chauhan S. Giant cell tumor of clavicle in an elderly: Rare presentation of a common tumor with review of literature; 1980–2020. J Microsc Ultrastruct [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Jul 6];10:93-5. Available from: https://www.jmau.org/text.asp?2022/10/2/93/325654




  Introduction Top


Giant cell tumor (GCT), also known as osteoclastoma, is a locally aggressive benign tumor arising in the epiphysis of bone. It accounts for 3%–8% of all bone tumors. About 75%–90% of GCT occur in long tubular bones with more than 50% arising in the distal femur and proximal tibia.[1] Flat bone involvements such as ribs, skull, patella, sternum and clavicle are rare.[2] GCT usually occurs after completion of maturation of the skeleton.[2] Sixty–seventy percent of patients with GCT are between 20 and 40 years of age, rarely affecting too young or too old.[3] We present here a case of GCT of the clavicle in an elderly female.


  Case Report Top


A 62-year-old female presented with the complaints of pain and swelling over the right side of the upper chest for the past 1 year. There was no history of fever, loss of appetite, loss of weight, or tuberculosis. On examination, the swelling was firm, nontender, and fixed to underlying bone. X-ray showed an expansile sclerolytic lesion involving medial end of the right clavicle with associated cortical destruction. No obvious perilesional soft tissue component was seen. Adjacent ribs appeared normal. Likely mass of malignant origin, possibilities considered were chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, or myeloma [Figure 1]a. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears were cellular, composed of cells predominantly in tsheets, clusters, and few singly scattered. Cells were round to oval, with moderate amount of cytoplasm, round-to-oval nucleus, and inconspicuous nucleoli. Pleomorphism was mild. Many multinucleated giant cells containing 20–100 nuclei were present, abutting the clusters of mononuclear cells as well scattered throughout the smear. Their nuclei were similar in morphology to that of mononuclear cells. Metachromatic material implicating osteoid or chondroid formation was not seen. No necrosis or mitosis was seen. Features were suggestive of a benign giant cell-rich lesion of bone possibly aneurysmal bone cyst or GCT [Figure 1]b. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging could not be done due to limitation of resources. Partial right claviculectomy was done. Grossly, tumor measuring 6.5 × 6.5 × 4.5 cm was solid, firm-hard, and reddish brown in color [Figure 1]c. Histopathology sections showed a tumor composed of uniformly distributed osteoclastic giant cells interspersed with mononuclear stromal cells. Both types of cells had similar round-to-oval nuclei with vesicular chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli [Figure 1]d. There was mild pleomorphism with no areas of hemorrhage or necrosis. Margins were free of tumor. A diagnosis of GCT, medial end of the right clavicle, was rendered. On follow-up for 1 year, no recurrence or metastasis was noted.
Figure 1: (a) X-ray showing an expansile sclerolytic lesion involving medial end of right clavicle with associated cortical destruction. No obvious perilesional soft tissue component seen. Adjacent ribs appear normal. (b) MGG-stained fine needle aspiration cytology smears show mononuclear cells in clusters with mild pleomorphism. Many multinucleated giant cells containing 20–100 nuclei were present, abutting the cluster. Inset: A multinucleated giant cell. (c) Gross appearance: Tumor measuring 6.5 × 6.5 × 4.5 cm was solid, hard-firm and reddish brown in color. (d) Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections show a tumor composed of uniformly distributed osteoclastic giant cells interspersed with mononuclear stromal cells. Both types of cells had similar round-to-oval nuclei with vesicular chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli

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  Discussion Top


Clavicle is a rare site for bone tumors accounting for about 0.45%–1% of all tumors.[3] The oncologic properties of tumors of clavicle closely resemble that of flat bones than long bones with metastatic tumors more common than primary tumors.[3] Among primary, tumors are more likely to be malignant than benign.[4]

GCT is a locally aggressive benign bone tumor, which usually affects young adults in their third to fourth decades of life.[2] Patients older than 55 years of age very rarely develop GCT.[5] Majority of the reported cases are located in long bones and only a few occurring in unusual locations.[5]

GCT of the clavicle is rare with only 15 cases reported in literature in the last 40 years[3],[4],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15] [Table 1]. Out of these, 7/15 were male and 8/15 were female. Eight were present on the lateral end, while 7 were present on the medial end of clavicle. Six were present in <20 years of age, 6/15 in 20–49 years of age, and 3/15 in ≥60 years of age. Out of these three, two were a known case of polyostotic Paget's disease for many years and developed GCT at 79 years of age.[6],[14] On postsurgical resection, there was no recurrence or metastasis over 1 year of follow-up in these three cases.[6],[12],[14]
Table 1: Characteristics of patients with giant cell tumor clavicle reported in the literature (1980-2020)

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McCarthy and Weber reported that the behavior of GCT in the elderly patients is similar to lesions occurring in younger patients in terms of location of tumor, radiographic features, and clinical course. However, tumors in older age group may have less aggressive course on account of lack of recurrences as compared to younger patients.[5]

Although there is a list of differential diagnosis of GCT of bone, unusual location (clavicle) and elderly age group narrows it down to metastatic carcinoma, osteoarthritic cyst, pigmented villonodular synovitis, osteosarcoma, and brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism.[2],[5] GCT is a rare complication of Paget's disease, a chronic bone disorder of elderly commonly affecting clavicle. Therefore, any elderly patient with GCT should be studied for the possibility of Paget's disease too.[5]

To conclude, clavicle is a rare site for bone tumors and shares its oncologic properties to that of flat bones than long bones. GCT of the clavicle in the elderly patients has been rarely reported. It has a similar biologic behavior to lesions in younger patients.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient has given her consent for her images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patient understands that her name and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Fletcher CD. Tumors of osteoarticular system. In: Fletcher CD, editor. Diagnostic Histopathology of Tumors. 3rd ed. New York: Churchill Living Stone; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Pujani M, Bahadur S, Jairajpuri ZS, Jetley S, Jameel J. Giant cell tumor bone in an elderly male-An unusual case misdiagnosed on MRI as a malignant sarcoma. Indian J Surg Oncol 2015;6:285-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Bajpai J, Saini S, Bajpai A, Khera R. Rare presentation of giant cell tumor of bone in the lateral end of the clavicle. Am J Case Rep 2013;14:235-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Akinsulire AT, Badmus OO, Giwa SO. Giant cell tumour of the clavicle: A rare presentation of a locally aggressive tumour. Niger Postgrad Med J 2017;24:250-3.  Back to cited text no. 4
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5.
McCarthy EF, Weber KL. Giant cell tumor of bone in elderly patients: A study of ten patients. Iowa Orthop J 2009;29:79-82.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Smith J, Yuppa F, Watson RC. Primary tumors and tumor-like lesions of the clavicle. Skeletal Radiol 1988;17:235-46.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Friedman B, Nerubay J, Lokiec F, Horoszowski H, Yelin A. Giant cell tumour occurring in the clavicle: A report of two cases. Respir Med 1989;83:145-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Beg MH, Ansari MM, Uddin R, Naim M. A case of giant-cell tumor of the clavicle. Acta Orthop Scand 1989;60:122.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Puri A, Agarwal MG, Shah M, Jambhekar NA, Anchan C, Behle S. Giant cell tumor of bone in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Orthop 2007;27:635-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Vaibhav V, Kumar D, Singh S. Giant cell tumour of clavicle. Sci J Med Sci 2014;3:352-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Nagano S, Tsuchimochi T, Yokouchi M, Setoguchi T, Sasaki H, Shimada H, et al. Giant cell tumor of the clavicle: Report of a case in a rare location with consideration of surgical method. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2015;16:142.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Khatri K, Singh J, Kalia A, Dahuja A. Giant cell tumour of clavicle: Occurrence of a common tumour in a rare location. Int J Surg Case Rep 2016;29:51-5.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Strøm TM, Skeie AT, Lobmaier IK, Zaikova O. Giant cell tumor: A rare condition in the immature skeleton-A retrospective study of symptoms, treatment, and outcome in 16 children. Sarcoma 2016;2016:3079835.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Nusbacher N, Sclafani SJ, Birla SR. Case report 155. Polyostotic Paget disease complicated by benign giant cell tumor of left clavicle. Skeletal Radiol 1981;6:233-5.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Kumar S, Haque SS, Muzaffar MA, Kumar I, Kumar A, Tanweeruddin MD, et al. Giant cell tumor of clavicle in an 8 year old girl: A rare case report. Clin Case Rep Int 2020;4:1141.  Back to cited text no. 15
    


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