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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 60-67

Implication of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy for morphology of some selected seed drugs: As a tool for authentication

Department of Botany, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan

Correspondence Address:
Ms. Noor Ul Uza
PHD Scholar at Department of Botany, University of Peshawar, Peshawar
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jmau.jmau_104_22

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Background: The goal of our current study is to use Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM) to evaluate the ultra-micromorphological properties of 14 seed drugs to correctly identify and validate them. There was no previous research on SEM-based evaluation of the selected seeds. These included: Solanum nigrum L., Physalis peruviana L., Cestrum diurrnum L., Withania somnifera L. Dunal, Achyranthus aspera L., Celosia argentia L., Chenopodium murale L., Cyperus alternifolius L., Cyperus rotundus L., Schoenoplectus litoralis (Schrad.) Palla, Oxalis corniculata L., Catharanthus roseus L., Canna indica L., and Parthenium hysterophorus L. belonging to 7 families (Solanaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae, Oxalidaceae, Apocynaceae, Cannaceae, and Asteraceae). Methods: Quantitative characters (length, width, and weight of seeds) as well as qualitative characters (seed shape, color, texture, and surface level of seeds) were analyzed. Results: Seeds length ranged from 0.6 μm (C. indica) to 2.4 μm (A. aspera) while, the seeds width and weight ranged from 0.6 μm (C. indica) to 1.8 μm (W. somnifera) and 0.03 g (C. indica) to 3.7 g (C. argentia), respectively. The SEM revealed many types of surface texture. Five types of surface levels (raised, regular, smooth, rough, and ill-defined pattern) were observed in seeds. The variation was found to be quite significant for the taxonomic demarcation at generic and specific levels. Conclusions: SEM could be a valuable approach for hidden morphological features of seed drugs, which could aid further exploration, appropriate identification, seed taxonomy, and authenticity. SEM and LM also play an important role in drug discovery and development.

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