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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2021
Volume 9 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 103-144

Online since Wednesday, September 15, 2021

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Bone health assessed by calcaneal quantitative ultrasound among cohort of pregnant egyptian women p. 103
Mohamed Laban, Sherif H Hussain, Ahmed M El-Kotb, Fady M Elghasnawy, Alaa S Hassanin, Mohammed S E. Elsafty
Aim: The aim was to assess the risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis and to identify possible risk factors affecting bone density (BD) during pregnancy as parity, body mass index (BMI), Vitamin D, and calcium supplementation using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus among first- and third-trimester pregnant women. Methods: It is a case–control study conducted at Ain Shams Maternity Hospital, Egypt, from May 7 to December 14, 2015. One hundred and thirty-two women in the third trimester and 33 matched controls in the first trimester were screened for BD at the calcaneus by QUS. Stiffness index (SI), QUS-T, and Z scores were measured. Results: Comparing both the groups regarding QUS-T score, Z score, and SI showed a statistically significant difference between both groups. Third-trimester participants had lower scores (−0.72 ± 1.0, −0.63 ± 0.99, and 88.53 ± 14.81, respectively) compared to their matched controls (1.05 ± 0.89, 1.16 ± 0.91, and 113.79 ± 12.49, respectively). According to QUS-T scores, 82 women (62.1%) in the third-trimester group were assessed as having normal BD, whereas 47 women (35.6%) were at risk of being osteopenic and 3 women (2.3%) were at risk of being osteoporotic. All women of the first trimester were assessed as having normal BD. Logistic regression was performed to identify possible risk factors affecting BD among third-trimester patients. BMI was the only statistically significant predictor for changes in bone health in those women (P = 0.001, odds ratio: 0.857, 95% confidence interval: 0.786–0.936). Conclusion: With one-unit rise in BMI, a 14% reduction in risk of decreased bone health is obtained.
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Stereological and histological assessment of the umbilical cord in new-born rat p. 108
Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak, Ahmad Yahyazadeh
Background: Umbilical cord plays a crucial role in the continuation of pregnancy by transferring nutrition and oxygen across the placenta to the fetus. We aimed to investigate the morphometrical and histological features of the umbilical cords in new-born rats. Materials and Methods: The adult male and female rats were chosen for matting purpose in the present study. Briefly, ten adult Wistar albino rats (female, n = 5; male, n = 5) were randomly assigned into five groups of two animals (female, n = 1; male, n = 1). Immediately after parturition, two umbilical cords of new-born rats (0-day-old) from each group were randomly selected. Finally, ten umbilical cord samples were examined using the histological and stereological methods in the light and electron microscopes. Results: The total numbers of Hofbauer cells and mesenchymal stromal cells was estimated statistically. We also calculated the mean volume of umbilical cords, arteries and veins, as well as arterial and venous lumens. Our histological findings also exhibited the histological features of Hofbauer cells, mesenchymal stromal cell cells, and blood vessels. Conclusion: Our findings showed more detailed information about umbilical cord tissues and their components, and that may contribute to the diagnose of umbilical cord complications in the developing fetus.
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Image analysis-assisted nuclear morphometric study of benign and malignant breast aspirates p. 114
Dayal Johan Niranjan Pandian, Anita Ramdas, M Moses Ambroise
Background: Fineneedle aspiration cytology of the breast is well accepted and accurate for the diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions, however, it remains a subjective evaluation. Aims and Objectives: The present study was carried out to assess the utility of nuclear morphometry in differentiating benign and malignant breast aspirates. Importantly, we wanted to evaluate the utility of nuclear density parameters using Image J software. Materials and Methods: Nuclear morphometry was carried out using image analysis software Image J 1.44 on 20 selected benign and malignant breast aspirates. Assessment was carried out on a total of 1000 cells in benign and 1000 cells in malignant aspirates counting 50 intact nuclei in nonoverlapping cells for each case. Six parameters including three size parameters, namely nuclear area, nuclear diameter, and nuclear perimeter; one shape parameter, i.e., axis ratio; and two nuclear chromasia parameters, namely density (integrated and raw), were measured. Results: There were significant differences between nuclear area, perimeter, diameter, integrated density, and raw integrated density of benign and malignant lesions. No significant difference was found for axis ratio. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that nuclear area, perimeter, diameter, integrated density, and raw integrated density are helpful in discriminating benign and malignant aspirates. Conclusions: Thus, Image J is helpful in the evaluation of nuclear size as well as chromasia. We conclude that nuclear size and density parameters can be used to derive cutoff values of various parameters to differentiate between benign and malignant cells in breast cytology.
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Gray lesions of the breast and its diagnostic significance: A retrospective study from rural India p. 119
Seema Dayal, Mani Krishna, Sanjay Kumar Kannaujia, Seema Singh
Background: Breast lesions extend from benign to malignant ones. The National Cancer Institute recommended categories for the diagnosis of breast cytology. There are some lesions in the breast which are called intermediate or gray lesions. It includes C3 (atypical, probably benign) and C4 (suspicious, favor malignant) which needs to be evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Saifai, Etawah (Uttar Pradesh). Fine-needle aspiration cytopathology (FNAC) was the diagnostic tool. The present study was undertaken to determine the gray lesions of the breast and its correlation with histopathology and other associated parameters. Immunohistochemistry was applied where ever necessary. One hundred and fifty one cases of gray lesions of the breast were included. Results: C3 was seen in 85 (56.29%) and C4 in 66 (43.70%) patients. The maximum number of patients was of 31–40, (33.77%) years age group, the youngest patient was 12-year-old female, whereas the oldest was 86 years male. Histopathology evaluation confirmed malignancy in 35 (23.17%) cases, and infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the frequent malignancy (24 [68.5%]). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of C4 category for the diagnosis of malignancy were, respectively, 81.48%, 50%, 68.7%, and 64.2%. Conclusion: FNAC is an excellent diagnostic tool. It has some limitations, especially with the gray lesions, which may lead to miss interpretation in diagnosis, so a scope of mistake to the cytopathologist is always there. These lesions need to be evaluated because of the risk of malignancy. However, gray lesions can be reduced by cytology followed by histopathology examination along with ancillary radiological investigations such as mammography and ultrasonography.
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The olfactory mucosa of butter catfish clupisoma garua (siluriformes, ailiidae): an ultrastructural study p. 125
Saroj Kumar Ghosh
Objective: The olfactory system is one of the most important chemosensory systems for teleosts. The olfactory epithelium of freshwater catfish Clupisoma garua (Siluriformes, Ailiidae) was studied by the aid of light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Materials and Methods: Mature sex-independent fish species were collected from Hooghly River, a distributary channel of river Ganga. Following routine procedure of ultrastructural techniques, different sensory and nonsensory cells lining the olfactory epithelium were described. Results: The lamella contained two epithelia, with a central core sandwiched in between. Based on distribution pattern and structural characteristics of cell, each olfactory lamella was differentiated into sensory and nonsensory epithelium. The smaller sensory epithelium contained morphologically distinct ciliated, microvillous, and rod receptor cells, distinguished based on staining patterns, characteristic length, and architecture of their dendritic terminals. The nonsensory epithelium comprising the greater surface area was made up of labyrinth cells, mast cells, supporting cells, ciliated nonsensory cells, and basal cells. The cilia furnished a characteristic 9 + 2 microtubule arrangement. Conclusion: The functional significance of various cells on the olfactory epithelium was correlated with behavior of the fish concerned.
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Production of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase from bacillus licheniformis isolated from natural hot water geyser p. 131
Girisha Malhotra, Shilpa Samir Chapadgaonkar
Context: Xylanase constitutes 20% of world enzyme market. Significantly, they are used in poultry feed, paper pulp, bakery, and textile industries. In view of the increasing demand of the enzyme, it is vital to develop indigenous strains and scalable technologies for the production of industrial enzymes. Aims: The objective of the present paper was to isolate a high-yielding strain of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase-producing bacteria for potential application in paper and pulp and biofuel industry. Methods: Sampling for prospecting of suitable organism was carried out from the places with dead and decaying lignocellulosic waste, and then Congo red screening was employed for the primary isolation of xylanase producers. Results: We report the isolation of 18 different strains of xylanase producer bacteria from natural hot water geyser of Sohna, Haryana, India. Subsequently, two of these isolates were chosen for further studies based on xylanase yield and desirable properties such as thermostability and alkali stability of xylanase produced. Conclusion: Isolate B2 was later identified as Bacillus licheniformis, whereas isolate Y3 was identified as Brevibacillus borstelensis. This strain when cultured at 35°C for 72 h showed xylanase production at 128 U/ml. The molecular weight of xylanase was determined to be 25 kDa. The production was scaled up in a 5-L stirred-tank bioreactor which led to high xylanase concentration of 380 U/ml in the first 48 h of culture.
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Immunohistochemical expression of cd200 in renal cell carcinoma p. 136
Hala M El Hanbuli, Heba A Ibrahim, Somia A M Soliman
Background and Objectives: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignant renal neoplasm in adults. CD200 is a transmembrane protein and is a promising target for cancer immunotherapy. The aim of this study is to assess the CD200 expression in RCC. Materials and Methods: Eighty paraffin-embedded radical nephrectomy specimens, diagnosed with RCC were evaluated immunohistochemically for CD200 expression. Results: Out of eighty cases studied, CD200 was expressed in n = 73 cases (91.25%) with high intensity in 27 cases (33.75%), moderate intensity in 22 cases (27.5%), and mild intensity in 24 cases (30%). No staining was observed in the adjacent apparently normal renal tissue in all examined sections. No significant relationship was found between CD200 expression and the gender, tumor size, tumor side, histologic type, nuclear grade, T stage, and tumor necrosis. Conclusion: CD200 expression in most of the studied cases of RCC may refer to the potential therapeutic of anti-CD200 antibody for this cancer.
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Histology of tooth development in 3D animation video and images - a preliminary report p. 141
Sandhya Tamgadge, Avinash Tamgadge
The process of tooth development is both, fascinating and well-described aspect of embryology. Although a big deal of the dental literature is being focused to the understanding of early stages of tooth development, still huge gap exist in our knowledge on how the dental hard tissues are formed, based on available images and descriptions. Tooth development process takes place in 3D form, inside our body. Therefore, histology should also be additionally explained with the help of additional 3D images and a video, which have not been reported so far. Methodology: Therefore, this brief article is a technical note and preliminary attempt to showcase 3D animation images and video of stages of tooth development which have been designed by the author herself using various the 3D animation softwares such as 3D max (Autodesk Media and Entertainment, San Rafael, California) and Adobe Premiere Pro 5.5 software which is a video-editing software (Adobe Systems, San Rafael, California).
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