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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2023
Volume 11 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-73

Online since Thursday, February 23, 2023

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Can intranasal administration of adipose-derived stem cells reach and affect the histological structure of distant organs of aged wistar rat? p. 1
Ghada Galal Hamam, Nevine Bahaa, Mona H Raafat
Introduction: Stem cell therapy is a highly promising strategy in various degenerative diseases. Intranasal administration of stem cells could be considered as a non-invasive treatment option. However, there is great debate concerning the ability of stem cells to reach distant organs. It is also unclear in such a case if they can alleviate age-related structural changes in these organs. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of intranasal administration of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to reach distant organs of rats at different time intervals and to investigate their effects on age-related structural changes in these organs. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine female Wistar rats were used in this study, seven of which were adults (6-month-old) and 42 were aged (2-year-old). Rats were divided into three-groups: Group-I (adult control), Group-II (aged), and Group-III (aged ADSCs treated). Rats of Groups I and II were sacrificed after 15 days from the beginning of the experiment. Rats of Group III were treated with intranasal ADSCs and were sacrificed after 2-h, 1-day, 3-day, 5-day, and 15-day. Heart, liver, kidney, and spleen specimens were collected and processed for H and E, CD105 immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescent techniques. Morphometric study and statistical analysis were performed. Results: ADSCs appeared in all organs examined after 2-h of intranasal administration. Their maximum presence was detected after 3-day of administration, after which their immunofluorescence gradually decreased and nearly disappeared from these organs by the 15th day. Improvement of some age-related deterioration in the structure of the kidney and liver occurred at day 5 after intranasal administration. Conclusions: ADSCs effectively reached the heart, liver, kidney, and spleen after intranasal administration. ADSCs ameliorated some age-related changes in these organs.
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A comparison of proliferative capacity of reticular and erosive variants of oral lichen planus by argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions method p. 12
Swati Shrikant Gotmare, Anish A Gupta, Mandavi Waghmare, Pratibha Kavle, Asha Rathod, Sushma Sonawne, Treville Pereira
Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP), an immune mediated disorder, has been recognized since 1869 and is presented as any one of the six variants. Reticular and erosive are the most frequently encountered. Its proliferative capacity can give some information regarding its progression. We adopted the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) method because of its simplicity to use and dependable results. We evaluated AgNORs in basal, suprabasal, and squamous cell layers. We also compared these three layers within two variants, reticular, and erosive. Materials and Methods: Thirty clinically diagnosed patients of OLP were included in the study. Reticular and erosive variants were included in our study. This was followed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and later by the AgNOR method. The mean number of AgNORs per nucleus was calculated. Results: Thirteen males and 17 females were the gender distribution. Twenty-three (76.67%) had reticular pattern and seven (23.33%) had erosive pattern. The basal cell layer had the highest mean AgNOR compared to suprabasal and squamous layers. Even among, erosive and reticular variants, the former had higher mean AgNOR counts. Discussion: Our results suggest that the inflammatory infiltrate close to the epithelial cells can alter the proliferation index for the pattern of protein synthesis of these cells. Moreover, the high proliferative index in OLP can be related to a specific immunologic response. Conclusion: We conclude that AgNOR can be used as a proliferative marker in earlier lesions to detect the severity.
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Development of the hair cells of the human cochlea: A scanning electron microscopic study p. 17
Sabita Mishra, Tarasankar Roy, Shubhi Saini
Introduction: In the mammalian auditory system, the cochlea is the first to attain structural and functional maturity. Although ultrastructural details of the developing cochlea of lower animals have been elucidated in the last few decades, comprehensive studies on human cochlea are lacking. Materials and Methods: In the present investigation we studied the development and maturation of the hair cells of ten human fetal cochlea from gestational weeks (GW) 12 to 37 by scanning electron microscopy. Result: We observed undifferentiated hair cells possessing numerous surface projections and long kinocilium during GW 14. At GW16, the primitive hair cells were arranged in one inner and four outer rows and had globular apices indicating the initiation of stereocilia formation. By GW 22, the globular apices were replaced by linear stereocilia and occasional kinocillia. Mature hair cells with sterocilia were observed in the basal turn at 30th week of gestation. At GW 37, the stereocilia were arranged in a typical “V” shaped pattern at the middle and apical coil, while the stereocilia of the basal turn were shorter in length resembling the adult cochlea. The inner hair cells were long and slender while outer hair cells were pear shaped, kinocilium were absent and the tunnel of Corti were well formed. Conclusion: It is concluded that in human, the morphological maturation of the hair cells starts in the basal turn around GW 22 and continues till 37th week in the apical turn indicating that early maturation of the cochlea may have a role on development of the higher auditory pathway connections.
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Does omeprazole, the proton-pump inhibitor, affects the structure of the kidney of male albino rats? Histological and laboratory study p. 23
Heba M Hussein, Nagwa El-Nefiawy, Haidy F Abdel Hamid, Marwa A Moneim
Introduction: This study was done to assess the injurious effects of omeprazole by an in vivo experimental study on rat kidneys. Materials and Methods: Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into four groups: Control group (I) in which rats were not administrated any treatment. In Groups IIa, IIb, and IIc rats received daily oral omeprazole in dose of 0.75 mg per kg for 2, 4, and 6 weeks, respectively. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen measurement. Then, animals were sacrificed, and kidney specimens were processed for paraffin blocks, sectioned and stained with H and E, Mallory trichrome and Periodic acid–Schiff, then examined by the light microscope. Stained sections and image analysis were used to count vacuolated cells, pyknotic nuclei, tubular casts, and area percent of collagen fiber deposition, and then, data were subjected to the statistical analysis. Results: Examination of omeprazole-treated groups showed injury of renal corpuscles, renal tubules, and vascular congestion with inflammatory cell infiltrate in renal interstitium. Thickening of basement membrane with deposition of collagen fibers was also detected. Statistically significant increase in the number of vacuolated cells, pyknotic nuclei, hyaline casts, and area percentage of collagen fiber deposition as compared with the control group was noticed, with deterioration of renal function tests. Conclusion: It was concluded that the long-term use of omeprazole resulted in structural damage of rat renal tissue associated with deterioration of renal function in a time-dependent manner.
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Pioglitazone induces dysplastic urothelial changes in urinary bladder of experimental diabetes Highly accessed article p. 34
Ahmed A. M. Abdel-Hamid, Alaa El-Din L. Firgany
Objectives: Pioglitazone (PIO) is a widely prescribed oral antidiabetic drug that has concerns regarding a potential risk of developing carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The objective of the current study was to assess this potential risk. Materials and Methods: The potential risk of PIO-induced urinary bladder carcinoma was assessed in the current study by examining urinary bladder of rats for urothelial cytokeratin (CK) expression and proliferative activity by Ki67 immunostaining. Results: Histological examination revealed dysplastic urothelial changes in PIO per se and diabetes mellitus + PIO (diabetic rats receiving PIO). In addition, a significantly (P < 0.05) decreased CK7 and CK8 expression together with a significantly increased CK20 as well as Ki67 expression was detected in the urothelial cells of groups administrated PIO, contrary to those which did not. Conclusion: The manifestations of urothelial dysplasia evidenced by histological examination as well as by the aberrant expression in CK and Ki67 after PIO administration add supporting evidence at cellular and experimental level to the previous clinical suspicions.
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A comparative evaluation of efficacy of biomin F and propolis containing toothpastes on dentinal tubule occlusion with and without use of an adjunct 810 nm diode laser: An In vitro scanning electron microscope study p. 41
Komal Khare, Prashant Bhusari, Abhishek Soni, Sachin K Malagi, Dennis Abraham, Lynn Johnson
Introduction: Dentinal hypersensitivity (DH) is a common chronic condition that affects a high proportion of the adult population and is one of the main reasons why patients seek dental opinion and treatment. Despite considerable success in reducing DH, unfortunately, most of the present methods can provide only temporary and unpredictable desensitization. Therefore, new treatment methods that are effective for long periods and at the same time do not have the complications are needed. Recently, two new desensitizing agents BioMin F and Propolis have been introduced for the treatment of DH. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare and evaluate the efficacy of BioMin F and Propolis containing toothpastes on dentinal tubule occlusion with and without the use of an adjunct 810 nm Diode Laser. Materials and Methods: Forty-five freshly extracted teeth were taken out of which thirty were sectioned into halves and divided into four test groups BioMin F, Propolis, BioMin F + Laser, and Propolis + Laser and control group. All the specimens were treated twice a day for 7 days and then evaluated under scanning electron microscope for partial and complete dentinal tubule occlusion. Results: A significantly higher number of completely occluded tubules were seen in BioMin F + laser group followed by Propolis + laser, Biomin F, and Propolis. Conclusion: Combination approach of desensitizing agent and laser provided a better result than the desensitizing agent alone and when compared individually Biomin F was more effective desensitizer as compared to Propolis.
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Morphometric analysis of collagen in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma using picrosirius red stain and spectrophotometry p. 47
Sahana Ashok, KP Ashok
Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most formidable health problems for mankind. These carcinomas are characterized by invasion of epithelial tumor cells into the stroma, which get embedded in extracellular matrix and collagen producing reactive changes. Such changes in the stroma may alter the biological aggressiveness of the tumor. An attempt was made to evaluate the collagen changes in different grades of OSCC which can contribute to understanding the biologic behavior of oral cancer and predict clinical outcomes. Aims and Objectives: To assess the quantitative changes in collagen in different grades of OSCC using hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and Picrosirius red (PSR) stain through spectrophotometry and to compare the efficacy of these stains for estimation of collagen. Materials and Methods: The study comprised a total sample size of 60, which were distributed under 4 different groups, each containing 15 samples. Group I to IV consisted of normal buccal mucosa, with well-, moderately-, and poorly-differentiated OSCC, respectively. The tissues of 10 μm thickness were stained with H and E and PSR for spectrophotometric analysis. Results: The quantity of collagen decreased with increasing grades of OSCC. Comparison between two stains showed that PSR can provide a more reliable and accurate result than H and E. Conclusion: Collagen estimation is one of the methods to assess the progression of tumor. The method used in the present study for collagen estimation in different grades of OSCC is reliable and accurate.
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The possible effects of vitamin D3 on AlCl3-Induced histological and morphometric alterations of adult male albino rat hippocampus p. 52
Jana Kamel Bashraheel, Zienab A Alrefaie, Hossam Eldin Ahmed Awad Hammad, Soad Shaker Ali
Context: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a challenging neurodegenerative disease, and Vitamin D was proved to have neuroprotective effects. Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effects of Vitamin D3 supplementation on AlCl3-induced AD rat model in different hippocampal subregions (CA1, CA2, and CA3). It also aimed to compare the protective effects of protective versus therapeutic effects of Vitamin D3 regiments on the number of degenerated neurons and the neuronal layer thickness. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four adult male Albino Wister rats were sorted into GI: control; GII: AlCl3-AD model (100 mg/kg) orally for 42 days; GIII: Rats were co-treated with AlCl3 (as GII) and Vitamin D3 (400 IU/kg/day) orally for 42 days; GIV: Rats were treated with AlCl3 for 42 days then with Vitamin D3 for further 2 weeks. Sagittal sections (5 μ) from paraffin-processed brains previously fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to evaluate the thickness and number of degenerated neurons in the hippocampal CA1, CA2, and CA3 subregions. Statistical Analysis: The results of this study were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analyzed by using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 23 (IBM SPSS, IBM Corp., Armonk, N.Y., USA). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Vitamin D3 supplementations modulated the degenerative changes observed in the hippocampus of AD rat model. In all hippocampal subregions, the thickness was higher in rats treated with Vitamin D3 after the AD induction than rats treated with Vitamin D3 during AD induction. However, this increase was only significant in CA2. Comparison of the number of degenerated neurons between both groups treated with Vitamin D3 revealed that in CA1, the number of degenerated neurons did not statistically differ between the two groups. However, it was insignificantly lower in CA2 in rats treated with Vitamin D3 after the AD induction, and in CA3, it was insignificantly lower in rats treated with Vitamin D3 during the AD induction. Conclusions: Vitamin D3 was found to be effective in ameliorating histological and morphometric alterations in AlCl3-induced AD in rat model and could be proposed as both preventive and therapeutic supplements in high-risk AD patients.
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Implication of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy for morphology of some selected seed drugs: As a tool for authentication p. 60
Ramiza Munir, Basheer Khan, Ghulam Dastagir, Noor Ul Uza
Background: The goal of our current study is to use Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM) to evaluate the ultra-micromorphological properties of 14 seed drugs to correctly identify and validate them. There was no previous research on SEM-based evaluation of the selected seeds. These included: Solanum nigrum L., Physalis peruviana L., Cestrum diurrnum L., Withania somnifera L. Dunal, Achyranthus aspera L., Celosia argentia L., Chenopodium murale L., Cyperus alternifolius L., Cyperus rotundus L., Schoenoplectus litoralis (Schrad.) Palla, Oxalis corniculata L., Catharanthus roseus L., Canna indica L., and Parthenium hysterophorus L. belonging to 7 families (Solanaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae, Oxalidaceae, Apocynaceae, Cannaceae, and Asteraceae). Methods: Quantitative characters (length, width, and weight of seeds) as well as qualitative characters (seed shape, color, texture, and surface level of seeds) were analyzed. Results: Seeds length ranged from 0.6 μm (C. indica) to 2.4 μm (A. aspera) while, the seeds width and weight ranged from 0.6 μm (C. indica) to 1.8 μm (W. somnifera) and 0.03 g (C. indica) to 3.7 g (C. argentia), respectively. The SEM revealed many types of surface texture. Five types of surface levels (raised, regular, smooth, rough, and ill-defined pattern) were observed in seeds. The variation was found to be quite significant for the taxonomic demarcation at generic and specific levels. Conclusions: SEM could be a valuable approach for hidden morphological features of seed drugs, which could aid further exploration, appropriate identification, seed taxonomy, and authenticity. SEM and LM also play an important role in drug discovery and development.
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Myofibroblasts in odontogenic cysts and tumors: An immunohistochemical study p. 68
Soujanya Pinisetti, Durgaprasad Tadi, Ravikanth Manyam
Objective: The objective of this study was to assess immunohistochemically the presence of myofibroblasts both qualitatively and quantitatively in odontogenic cysts and tumors and to compare with the control cases of squamous cell carcinoma and to correlate the results with biologic behavior of these lesions. Materials and Methodology: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks of odontogenic cysts and tumors were retrieved from institutional archives. The sample size is 40; these include ten cases of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) (n = 10), five cases of dentigerous cyst (n = 5), ten cases of solid ameloblastoma (n = 10), and five cases of unicystic ameloblastoma (n = 5). Ten cases of squamous cell carcinoma (n = 10) served as control. Sections were taken and stained immunohistochemically using alpha-smooth muscle actin for evaluation of myofibroblasts. The number of positive stromal cells was evaluated both for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Results: The present study showed that the mean number of myofibroblasts among the odontogenic cysts and tumors was higher in locally aggressive lesions such as OKC (23.79 ± 19.95), solid ameloblastoma (26.38 ± 17.00), and unicystic ameloblastoma (20.74 ± 14.86) which were comparable to squamous cell carcinoma (21.49 ± 9.76) when compared to benign lesions like dentigerous cyst which showed the least number of myofibroblasts (13.1 ± 7.71). Qualitatively, the staining intensity of myofibroblasts showed a significant variation within the same lesion and among different lesions. There was a distinct difference in the morphology, pattern of arrangement, and distribution of myofibroblasts among the studied lesions. Conclusion: We conclude that the increase in the number of myofibroblasts could be one of the contributory factors for the locally aggressive behavior of benign lesions such as ameloblastomas and OKCs. Further studies are suggested to understand the mechanism by which these important cellular elements exert their effects on stromal and epithelial tissue compartments.
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