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The effect of tamoxifen citrate on granulosa cells of ovarian follicles in adult female rats: Light microscopic study

 Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Fatimah Khalil Aljassim,
Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jmau.jmau_79_21

Background: Tamoxifen is a drug that has been used extensively as a chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer. It should be taken for a long period, from few weeks up to many years, so it can induce gynecological and nongynecological complications. Aim: Present study was conducted to clarify the histopathological effects of tamoxifen intake on the ovarian follicles of rats and evaluate the promising recovery after drug withdrawal. Materials and Methods: Adult female albino rats (n = 24) were randomly divided into four groups. Group I: Control rats without treatment. Group II: Rats received olive oil vehicle. Group III: Rats received 5 mg/kg daily of tamoxifen dissolved in olive oil by oral administration for 4 weeks. Group IV: Rats received tamoxifen as in Group III then will be kept for another 4 weeks without treatment for recovery. Then, the rats were anaesthetized and the ovaries were removed and prepared for histological assessment by light microscope. Results: The ovarian histological findings in the ovary of Group III revealed an increase in atretic ovarian follicles, appearance of cystic ovarian follicles, and cystic corpus luteum. The granulosa cells of ovarian follicles were disorganized with vacuolation of their cytoplasm, increased number of pyknotic nuclei, fragmented nuclei, and apoptotic bodies. After the withdrawal of drug, the ovarian tissue showed slight improvement with the appearance of some atretic follicles with degenerated oocyte and stromal hyperplasia. Conclusion: Based on the results, tamoxifen induced marked histological changes in the ovary. If tamoxifen is mandatory for the prevention of breast cancer, frequent gynecological examination should be carried out to detect any side effects.

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