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Categorizing malignant small round cell tumors in aspiration cytology: An institutional experience

 Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Sciences and SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Correspondence Address:
Priyadarshini Dehuri,
Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Sciences and SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jmau.jmau_66_21

Aim and Objectives: The study aims to categorize malignant small round cell tumors (MSRCTs) originating in various sites of the body with the objective of utilization of cytomorphological features and ancillary techniques. Study Design: It is a cross-sectional study conducted over a time span of 3 years (2017–2020). 33 cases of tumors with round cell morphology were evaluated by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Materials and Methods: The application of cell block preparation supported by immunohistochemistry aided in the categorization of 23 cases with definite diagnosis and the rest were reported as MSRCTs. Results: Among the categorized 23/33 cases, the most common diagnosis was Ewing's sarcoma (7/23) followed by 6 cases of lymphoma. There were 2 cases each of rhabdomyosarcoma and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and 1 case each of neuroblastoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT), myeloid sarcoma, neuroendocrine tumor of pancreas, plasmacytoma, and small cell carcinoma. Histopathology confirmation was available in 24/33 cases. Among the categorized tumors (23/33), biopsy correlation was available in 19 cases, of which concordant result was seen in 17 cases (89.47%), which were 6 cases of lymphoma, 5 cases of Ewing's sarcoma (EWS), 2 of rhabdomyosarcoma, and 1 each of neuroblastoma, small cell carcinoma, DSRCT, and LCH. Discordant result was seen in one case of rhabdomyosarcoma and a case of synovial sarcoma reported as extraskeletal EWS in cytology. Out of the uncategorized cases reported as MSRTCs, histopathology was available in 5 cases which were diagnosed as rhabdomyosarcoma (1 cases), lymphoma (1 case), amelanotic melanoma (1 case), and extraskeletal EWS (2 cases). Conclusion: Categorization of MSRCTs should be done to implement appropriate therapeutic protocol. FNAC provides a rapid diagnosis contributing immensely for the timely management of the patient. Detailed cytomorphological evaluation serves as a guide for further evaluation by ancillary techniques leading to definitive diagnosis.

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