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Expression of p53 as potential biomarker in oral submucous fibrosis: An immunohistochemical study

1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, School of Dental Sciences, Karad, Satara, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Pathology, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, KIMSDU, Karad, Satara, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad, Satara, Maharashtra, India
4 Department of Periodontology, HKDET'S Dental College, Hospital and Reaserch Institute, Humnadad, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
KA Kamala,
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, Karad - 415 110, Satara, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jmau.jmau_23_21

Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is potentially malignant disorder known to transform into oral cancer. The malignant transformation is often associated with changes at the genetic level that in turn is reflected by the altered expression of proteins related to cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis. Expression of p53 tumor suppressor gene is one of the common findings in human cancers including the oral cancer. Therefore, the early detection of potentially malignant OSMF has been crucial in the inhibition of oral cancer. Aim and Objectives: To determine the main pathological logical factors and expression of aberrant p53 in OSMF, oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and in normal patients, to study correlation between p53 expression with clinical staging and histological grading of OSMF. Materials and Methods: An immunohistochemical (IHC) study was performed for p53 expression on 35 cases of OSMF, 10 cases of OSCC with history of habits and 10 normal patients without any habits. Results: The expression of p53 showed a significant difference between normal oral mucosa, OSMF and OSCC samples. Conclusion: The study demonstrated a high incidence of p53 over expression in OSMF and OSCC. The results indicate that p53 over expression may play a role in pathogenesis of OSMF and in the development of Oral squamous cell carcinoma. With early detection of the high-risk patients with OSMF, we can expect to develop more intensive treatment modalities, leading to the reduction in cancer transformation rate from OSMF.

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