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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
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Utility of hematological and biochemical parameters as a screening tool for assessing coronavirus disease 2019 infection and its severity


1 Department of Biochemistry, Hamdard Institute of Medical Science and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Pathology, Hamdard Institute of Medical Science and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Medicine, Hamdard Institute of Medical Science and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India
4 Department of Community Medicine, Hamdard Institute of Medical Science and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Sabina Khan,
Department of Pathology, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi - 110 062
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jmau.jmau_59_22

Background: The rapidly evolving pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has presented with clinical severity, which varies from asymptomatic cases to being fatal in others. The need of the hour is to find meaningful and cost-effective COVID-19 biomarkers out of conventional hematological and biochemical parameters, which will help in the early identification of patients with a poor prognosis, leading to timely intervention. Aim: The aim was to analyze different biochemical and hematological parameters in COVID-19 patients and also to study the association of these parameters with disease severity. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional observational study was carried out on 100 COVID-19 patients from a hospital from July to October 2020. Based on saturation of oxygen (SpO2), admitted patients were grouped into mild–moderate (SpO2 ≥90%) and severe groups (SpO2 <90%). Hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in both groups, and association with disease severity was analyzed. Results: Out of 100 patients, 57 patients were seen in the mild–moderate group (SpO2 ≥90%), while 43 patients (SpO2 <90%) belonged to the severe category. Males were predominant in both mild–moderate and severe groups. Among the hematological parameters, statistically significant higher values of absolute neutrophil count (P = 0.046) and significantly lower absolute lymphocyte count (P = 0.003) values were observed. With regard to biochemical parameters, increased urea and decreased total protein were found in the severe category and this association was statistically significant. Conclusion: To conclude, early identification and monitoring of hematological and biochemical parameters, especially those associated with higher disease severity, may contribute toward improving disease outcomes.


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