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  Most popular articles (Since December 21, 2017)

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Effects of electromagnetic fields exposure on the antioxidant defense system
Elfide Gizem Kivrak, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Arife Ahsen Kaplan, Işınsu Alkan, Gamze Altun
October-December 2017, 5(4):167-176
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2017.07.003  PMID:30023251
Technological devices have become essential components of daily life. However, their deleterious effects on the body, particularly on the nervous system, are well known. Electromagnetic fields (EMF) have various chemical effects, including causing deterioration in large molecules in cells and imbalance in ionic equilibrium. Despite being essential for life, oxygen molecules can lead to the generation of hazardous by-products, known as reactive oxygen species (ROS), during biological reactions. These reactive oxygen species can damage cellular components such as proteins, lipids and DNA. Antioxidant defense systems exist in order to keep free radical formation under control and to prevent their harmful effects on the biological system. Free radical formation can take place in various ways, including ultraviolet light, drugs, lipid oxidation, immunological reactions, radiation, stress, smoking, alcohol and biochemical redox reactions. Oxidative stress occurs if the antioxidant defense system is unable to prevent the harmful effects of free radicals. Several studies have reported that exposure to EMF results in oxidative stress in many tissues of the body. Exposure to EMF is known to increase free radical concentrations and traceability and can affect the radical couple recombination. The purpose of this review was to highlight the impact of oxidative stress on antioxidant systems.
  16,759 1,385 87
REVIEW ARTICLE
Anti-quorum sensing natural compounds
Hani Z Asfour
January-March 2018, 6(1):1-10
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_10_18  PMID:30023261
Increasing extent of pathogenic resistance to drugs has encouraged the seeking for new anti-virulence drugs. Many pharmacological and pharmacognostical researches are performed to identify new drugs or discover new structures for the development of novel therapeutic agents in the antibiotic treatments. Although many phytochemicals show prominent antimicrobial activity, their power lies in their anti-virulence properties. Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial intercellular communication mechanism, which depends on bacterial cell population density and controls the pathogenesis of many organisms by regulating gene expression, including virulence determinants. QS has become an attractive target for the development of novel anti-infective agents that do not rely on the use of antibiotics. Anti-QS compounds are known to have the ability to prohibit bacterial pathogenicity. Medicinal plants offer an attractive repertoire of phytochemicals with novel microbial disease-controlling potential, due to the spectrum of secondary metabolites present in extracts, which include phenolics, quinones, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and polyacetylenes. They have recently received considerable attention as a new source of safe and effective QS inhibitory substances. The objective of this review is to give a brief account of the research reports on the plants and natural compounds with anti-QS potential.
  9,023 1,950 90
REVIEW
Ethics in medical research
Salman Yousuf Guraya, N.J.M. London, Shaista Salman Guraya
July-September 2014, 2(3):121-126
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2014.03.003  
Ethics, an essential dimension of human research, is considered both as discipline and practice. For clinical research, ethically justified criteria for the design, conduct, and review of clinical investigation can be identified by obligations to both the researcher and human subject. Informed consent, confidentiality, privacy, privileged communication, and respect and responsibility are key elements of ethics in research. A systematic literature search of English-language articles on Medline, ISI web of knowledge, Sciencedirect, Google scholar, the Cochrane database of evidence-based reviews, and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects was performed by connecting the Mesh terms (“ethics”, “medical research”, research ethics”, “medical education”, “research ethics principles”. The abstracts of 461 articles were reviewed for the relevancy of topic and analyzed in terms of application and validity. Out of these, 21 studies were found relevant as they concentrated principles of ethics in medical research, their practical applications, and suggested guidelines for future research. Research ethics committees must promote greater understanding of ethical issues on biomedical research. These committees function for submission, consideration, evaluation, and communication of findings. Application, research protocol, patient information leaflet and informed consent form, and any other supporting documentation are thoroughly reviewed by research ethics committees for legal and moral safety, integrity, and welfare of the research subjects.
  8,492 1,099 15
REVIEW ARTICLE
Extracellular matrix remodeling in human disease
Hala Salim Sonbol
July-September 2018, 6(3):123-128
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_4_18  PMID:30221137
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a meshwork of proteins and carbohydrates that supports many biological structures and processes, from tissue development and elasticity to preserve the structures of entire organs. In each organ, the composition of the ECM is distinct. It is a remarkably active three-dimensional structure that is continuously undergoing remodeling to regulate tissue homeostasis. This review aims to explain the role of ECM proteins in the remodeling process in different types of disease. The hardening of the ECM (desmoplasia), as well as its manipulation, induction, and impairment in regulation of its composition can play a role in several diseases, examples of which are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, spinal cord injury, progression and metastasis of breast cancer, and neurodegenerative condition in the brain such as Alzheimer's disease. Remodeling is also associated with diet-induced insulin resistance in many metabolic tissues. A greater comprehension of the way in which the ECM regulates organ structure and function and of how ECM remodeling affects the development of diseases may lead to the improvement and discovery of new treatments.
  7,826 1,315 40
REVIEW
Why children absorb more microwave radiation than adults: The consequences
L Lloyd Morgan, Santosh Kesari, Devra Lee Davis
October-December 2014, 2(4):197-204
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2014.06.005  
Computer simulation using MRI scans of children is the only possible way to determine the microwave radiation (MWR) absorbed in specific tissues in children. Children absorb more MWR than adults because their brain tissues are more absorbent, their skulls are thinner and their relative size is smaller. MWR from wireless devices has been declared a possible human carcinogen. Children are at greater risk than adults when exposed to any carcinogen. Because the average latency time between first exposure and diagnosis of a tumor can be decades, tumors induced in children may not be diagnosed until well into adulthood. The fetus is particularly vulnerable to MWR. MWR exposure can result in degeneration of the protective myelin sheath that surrounds brain neurons. MWR-emitting toys are being sold for use by young infants and toddlers. Digital dementia has been reported in school age children. A case study has shown when cellphones are placed in teenage girls’ bras multiple primary breast cancer develop beneath where the phones are placed. MWR exposure limits have remained unchanged for 19 years. All manufacturers of smartphones have warnings which describe the minimum distance at which phone must be kept away from users in order to not exceed the present legal limits for exposure to MWR. The exposure limit for laptop computers and tablets is set when devices are tested 20 cm away from the body. Belgium, France, India and other technologically sophisticated governments are passing laws and/or issuing warnings about children’s use of wireless devices.
  7,782 527 26
REVIEW ARTICLES
The role of nutrition related genes and nutrigenetics in understanding the pathogenesis of cancer
Ayman Zaky Elsamanoudy, Moustafa Ahmed Mohamed Neamat-Allah, Fatma Azzahra’ Hisham Mohammad, Mohammed Hassanien, Hoda Ahmed Nada
July-September 2016, 4(3):115-122
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2016.02.002  PMID:30023217
Nutrition has a predominant and recognizable role in health management. Nutrigenetics is the science that identifies and characterizes gene variants associated with differential response to nutrients and relating this variation to variable disease states especially cancer. This arises from the epidemiological fact that cancer accounts for a high proportion of total morbidity and mortality in adults throughout the world. There is much evidence to support that genetic factors play a key role in the development of cancer; these genetic factors such as DNA instability and gene alterations are affected by nutrition. Nutrition may also lead to aberrant DNA methylation, which in turn contributes to carcinogenesis. The aim of this work is to clarify the basic knowledge about the vital role of nutrition-related genes in various disease states, especially cancer, and to identify nutrigenetics as a new concept that could highlight the relation between nutrition and gene expression. This may help to understand the mechanism and pathogenesis of cancer. The cause of cancer is a complex interplay mechanism of genetic and environmental factors. Dietary nutrient intake is an essential environmental factor and there is a marked variation in cancer development with the same dietary intake between individuals. This could be explained by the variation in their genetic polymorphisms, which leads to emergence of the concept of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics.
  7,062 968 19
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Advantages of Kahoot! Game-based formative assessments along with methods of its use and application during the COVID-19 Pandemic in various live learning sessions
Nagwa Kostandy Kalleny
October-December 2020, 8(4):175-185
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_61_20  
Background: Technology has played important roles in education, thus the application of online Kahoot! Game-based technology as a learning tool particularly in formative assessments might improve learning and achieve promising education. It can be applied live, either face to face or virtual in distance learning as during the current situation of COVID-19 pandemic that resulted in total shift toward online learning. Methodology: Kahoot! Game-based histology and cell biology lab formative assessments were prepared, equipped with light and electron microscopic photos, and applied for 2nd year undergraduate medical students. Students' engagement was evaluated by calculating number of engaged students in Kahoot! versus number of attended students in each lab. Students' satisfaction was evaluated according to students' feedback collected on Kahoot! platform and by an online questionnaire applied on Google Forms which included 5 items that were measured on a 5-point Likert scale, with 1 indicating strongly disagree and 5 indicating strongly agree, with overall satisfaction ranging between 5 (least satisfaction) and 25 (maximum satisfaction). YouTube videos were done to demonstrate and spread the idea of using Kahoot! platform in education particularly in the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: Kahoot! was successfully applied in Histology and Cell Biology lab sessions. Students' engagement for Kahoot! game-based formative assessments were 100% in most lab sessions. The mean overall students' fun assessment score for Kahoot! was 4.65 out of 5. Most students recommended the use of Kahoot! game-based formative assessments. The mean overall Kahoot! questionnaire satisfaction score was 24.25 (ranging between agree and strongly agree). YouTube videos were successfully published. Conclusion: Kahoot! produces marked students' engagement and satisfaction in formative assessments enabling it to be applied live for any learning session either face to face or virtual for distance learning.
  5,506 782 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effects of short and long term electromagnetic fields exposure on the human hippocampus
Omur Gulsum Deniz, Suleyman Kaplan, Mustafa Bekir Selçuk, Murat Terzi, Gamze Altun, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Kerim Aslan, Devra Davis
October-December 2017, 5(4):191-197
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2017.07.001  PMID:30023254
The increasing use of mobile phones may have a number of physiological and psychological effects on human health. Many animal and human studies have reported various effects on the central nervous system and cognitive performance from of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by mobile phones. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of mobile phones on the morphology of the human brain and on cognitive performance using stereological and spectroscopic methods and neurocognitive tests. Sixty healthy female medical school students aged 18–25 years were divided into a low exposure group (30 subjects, <30 min daily use by the head) and high exposure group (30 subjects, >90 min daily use by the head). Magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain analysed on OsiriX 3.2.1 workstation. Neuropsychological tests were performed for each subject. In addition, three dominant specific metabolites were analysed, choline at 3.21 ppm, creatine at 3.04 ppm and N-acetyl aspartate at 2.02 ppm. Analysis of the spectroscopic results revealed no significant difference in specific metabolites between the groups (p > 0.05). There was also no significant difference in terms of hippocampal volume between the groups (p > 0.05). In contrast, the results of the stroop and digit span (backward) neurocognitive tests of high exposure group for evaluating attention were significantly poorer from low exposure group (p < 0.05). Based on these results, we conclude that a lack of attention and concentration may occur in subjects who talk on mobile phones for longer times, compared to those who use phones relatively less.
  5,698 459 15
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Histological and ultrastructure study of the testes of acrylamide exposed adult male albino rat and evaluation of the possible protective effect of Vitamin E intake
Nawal Awad Hasanin, Nazik Mahmoud Sayed, Fatma Mohammed Ghoneim, Sara Ahmed Al-Sherief
January-March 2018, 6(1):23-34
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_7_18  PMID:30023264
Acrylamide (AA) is a hazardous unavoidable gonadal toxin. Hence, the aim of this study is to clarify its harmful effects on the testis of adult albino rat by light and electron microscope and to evaluate the possible role of Vitamin E (Vit E) in the prevention of such effects. Thirty-five adult male albino rats were enrolled in this study. They were divided into three groups: Group I (control); Group II (AA exposed), and Group III (AA and concomitant Vit E treated group). Animals of Groups II and III were further subdivided into two equal subgroups (each subgroup included five rats): (a) rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks and (b) rats were sacrificed after 6 weeks. The testes of each rat were dissected out, processed, and examined by Hematoxylin and Eosin, Periodic acid–Schiff and Mallory's trichrome stains as well as electron microscopic study. The study revealed that AA induces testicular damage at the histological and ultrastructural level in the form of degeneration and arrested spermatogenesis. Moreover, decreased seminiferous tubules diameters and epithelial height were detected. These changes are maximally improved in Vit E treated group. Hence, we could conclude that AA causes degenerative changes of the testes of albino rats and arrest of spermatogenesis. The AA-induced histological and ultrastructural changes of the testes could be explained by oxidative stress. These effects changes are proportional to the duration of exposure. Moreover, it could be concluded that Vitamin E has a protective role against AA-induced testicular damage by its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects.
  4,918 678 4
Histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical study of experimentally induced fatty liver in adult male albino rat and the possible protective role of pomegranate
Nadia F Hassan, Gehan M Soliman, Ebtsam F Okasha, Amany M Shalaby
January-March 2018, 6(1):44-55
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_5_18  PMID:30023266
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a major health problem and is considered the most common worldwide liver disease. Pomegranate has many biological activities and could modify the risk of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the current research was to study the histological changes of experimentally induced fatty liver and possible protection by pomegranate. For this purpose, 50 adult male albino rats were divided into four groups, control group, pomegranate treated group that were given pomegranate juice for six weeks, fatty liver induced group that were fed on high fat diet for six weeks and protective group that were fed on high fat diet and received pomegranate juice for six weeks. Histological changes were detected in the fatty liver induced group in the form of disturbed hepatic architecture, dilatation and congestion of central veins, blood sinusoids and portal veins. Most of hepatocytes showed variable degrees of cytoplasmic vacuolation, mitochondrial structural changes, dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum in addition to nuclear structural changes like condensed chromatin, irregular shrunken nuclei and vacuolated nuclei. All these changes were associated with inflammatory cellular infiltrations, deposition of collagen fibers around the central vein, blood sinusoids, portal areas and in between the hepatocytes in addition to significant increase in number of hepatic stellate cells that was proved by electron microscope and confirmed by immunohistochemical study. Moreover, these structural changes were much less pronounced in animals treated with pomegranate either with or before receiving high fat diet. These findings suggested that pomegranate has a protective effect against experimentally induced fatty liver.
  4,539 696 9
REVIEW ARTICLES
Skeptical approaches concerning the effect of exposure to electromagnetic fields on brain hormones and enzyme activities
Aymen A Warille, Gamze Altun, Abdalla A Elamin, Arife Ahsen Kaplan, Hamza Mohamed, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Abubaker El Elhaj
October-December 2017, 5(4):177-184
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2017.09.002  PMID:30023252
This review discusses the effects of various frequencies of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on brain hormones and enzyme activity. In this context, the mechanism underlying the effects of EMF exposure on tissues generally and cellular pathway specifically has been discussed. The cell membrane plays important roles in mediating enzymatic activities as to response and reacts with extracellular environment. Alterations in the calcium signaling pathways in the cell membrane are activated in response to the effects of EMF exposure. Experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that no changes occur in serum prolactin levels in humans following short-term exposure to 900 Mega Hertz (MHz) EMF emitted by mobile phones. The effects of EMF on melatonin and its metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, in humans have also been investigated in the clinical studies to show a disturbance in metabolic activity of melatonin. In addition, although 900 MHz EMF effects on NF-κB inflammation, its effects on NF-κB are not clear.
  4,651 428 7
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Protective effects of melatonin and omega-3 on the hippocampus and the cerebellum of adult Wistar albino rats exposed to electromagnetic fields
Gamze Altun, Suleyman Kaplan, Omur Gulsum Deniz, Suleyman Emre Kocacan, Sinan Canan, Devra Davis, Cafer Marangoz
October-December 2017, 5(4):230-241
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2017.05.006  PMID:30023259
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of pulsed digital electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones on the central nervous system of the adult Wistar albino rats. The study evaluated structural and functional impacts of four treatment arms: electromagnetic field (EMF) exposed; EMF exposed + melatonin treated group (EMF + Mel); EMF exposed + omega-3 (ω3) treated group (EMF + ω3); and control group (Cont). The 12-weeks-old rats were exposed to 900 MHz EMF for 60 min/day (4:00–5:00 p.m.) for 15 days. Stereological, biochemical and electrophysiological techniques were applied to evaluate protective effects of Mel and ω3. Significant cell loss in the CA1 and CA2 regions of hippocampus were observed in the EMF compared to other groups (p < 0.01). In the CA3 region of the EMF + ω3, a significant cell increase was found compared to other groups (p < 0.01). Granular cell loss was observed in the dentate gyrus of the EMF compared to the Cont (p < 0.01). EMF + ω3 has more granular cells in the cerebellum than the Cont, EMF + Mel (p < 0.01). Significant Purkinje cell loss was found in the cerebellum of EMF group compared to the other (p < 0.01). EMF + Mel and EMF + ω3 showed the same protection compared to the Cont (p > 0.05). The passive avoidance test showed that entrance latency into the dark compartment was significantly shorter in the EMF (p < 0.05). Additionally, EMF had a higher serum enzyme activity than the other groups (p < 0.01). In conclusion, our analyses confirm that EMF may lead to cellular damage in the hippocampus and the cerebellum, and that Mel and ω3 may have neuroprotective effects.
  4,750 320 12
REVIEW ARTICLES
Breast cancer screening programs: Review of merits, demerits, and recent recommendations practiced across the world
Tajammal Abbas Shah, Shaista Salman Guraya
April-June 2017, 5(2):59-69
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2016.10.002  PMID:30023238
Breast cancer screening is defined as the evaluation of symptom free, otherwise healthy looking females of child bearing age or postmenopausal women for early detection of breast cancer. Screening mammography is the most common and widely practiced breast cancer screening modality across the world. The other modes of breast cancer screening being practiced across the world are: breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE), digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), ultrasonography (USG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and identification of certain genetic oncogenes. The major merits of breast cancer screening programs are: early diagnosis, sorting out and prevention of risk factors, and timely treatment to lessen the morbidity (5 years localized stage survival rate is 99%, regional disease 84% while metastatic breast cancer 5 year survival rate is 23%); it also reduces overall 20% mortality rate. The major demerits of breast cancer screening are: overdiagnosis (19% from the perspective of a woman invited to screening), high cost, ionizing radiation (lifetime attributable risk to develop breast cancer is 3/10,000), false positive biopsy recommendation (about 8/1000), false negative results 11/10,000), and their consequences. Worldwide, most of the countries recommend biennial screening for breast cancer at 50–74 years of age. However, some countries recommend screening mammography earlier, starting at the age of 40 years until 70–74 years based on higher breast cancer incidence rate in those countries. This article provides a detailed review of merits, demerits, and recent recommendations for screening programs being practiced across the world.
  4,476 447 27
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Presence of multidrug-resistant bacteria on mobile phones of healthcare workers accelerates the spread of nosocomial infection and Regarded as a Threat to Public Health in Bangladesh
Tonmoy Debnath, Shukanta Bhowmik, Tarequl Islam, Mohammed Mehadi Hassan Chowdhury
July-September 2018, 6(3):165-169
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_30_18  PMID:30221143
Recently, mobile phones have become a potent vector for the transmission of pathogens. In hospitals, the use of the mobile phones by healthcare workers in an unhygienic manner accelerates the spread of nosocomial infection. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of microbiological contamination of mobile phones belonging to clinicians in Bangladesh hospitals. From 100 samples, we identified 69 isolates of bacteria including 22 Staphylococcus aureus; 11 Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 14 Escherichia coli; 6 Salmonella typhi 6 and 16 Staphylococcus epidermidis. On the basis of antibiotic susceptibility test using 11 antibiotics, it has been observed that most of the isolated bacteria became resistant to antibiotics and compared to other isolates, isolates of S. epidermidis and S. typhi were more resistant and sensitive, respectively. About 68.8% isolates showed that their resistance capacities against ampicillin but in contrast, 56.6% isolated were susceptible to imipenem. Azithromycin and imipenem against S. aureus, gentamicin against P. aeruginosa, tetracycline and imipenem against E. coli, tetracycline against S. typhi, and S. epidermidis revealed significant antimicrobial affectivity. We found that mobile phones are potential vectors to spread antibiotic-resistant nosocomial pathogens. Based on the study, an effective disinfection practice for cellular phones used in hospitals should be introduced to prevent the potential of cross-contamination.
  4,231 631 9
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Bacterial contamination of cell phones of medical students at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Shadi Zakai, Abdullah Mashat, Abdulmalik Abumohssin, Ahmad Samarkandi, Basim Almaghrabi, Hesham Barradah, Asif Jiman-Fatani
July-September 2016, 4(3):143-146
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2015.12.004  PMID:30023220
Cell phones are commonly used in healthcare settings for rapid communication within hospitals. Concerns have been increased about the use of these devices in hospitals, as they can be used everywhere, even in toilets. Therefore, they can be vehicles for transmitting pathogens to patients. This study aimed to examine the presence of pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of cell phones that are used frequently by preclinical medical students. This cross-sectional study identified both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria on cell phones of 105 medical students at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, using standard microbiological methods. Out of 105 cell phones screened, 101 (96.2%) were contaminated with bacteria. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most abundant isolates (68%). Seventeen (16.2%) cell phones were found to harbor Staphylococcus aureus. Gram-positive bacilli were isolated from 20 (19%) samples. Viridans streptococci and Pantoea species were also isolated but at lower levels. Our findings indicate that cell phones can act as reservoirs of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic organisms. Therefore, full guidelines about restricting the use of cell phones in clinical environments, hand hygiene, and frequent decontamination of mobile devices are recommended at an early stage in medical schools, to limit the risk of cross-contamination and healthcare-associated infections caused by cell phones.
  4,514 328 22
REVIEW ARTICLES
Cannabinoids for treating cardiovascular disorders: Putting together a complex puzzle
Basma Ghazi Eid
October-December 2018, 6(4):171-176
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_42_18  PMID:30464888
Cannabinoids have been increasingly gaining attention for their therapeutic potential in treating various cardiovascular disorders. These disorders include myocardial infarction, hypertension, atherosclerosis, arrhythmias, and metabolic disorders. The aim of this review is to cover the main actions of cannabinoids on the cardiovascular system by examining the most recent advances in this field and major literature reviews. It is well recognized that the actions of cannabinoids are mediated by either cannabinoid 1 or cannabinoid 2 receptors (CB2Rs). Endocannabinoids produce a triphasic response on blood pressure, while synthetic cannabinoids show a tissue-specific and species-specific response. Blocking cannabinoid 1 receptors have been shown to be effective against cardiometabolic disorders, although this should be done peripherally. Blocking CB2Rs may be a useful way to treat atherosclerosis by affecting immune cells. The activation of CB2Rs was reported to be useful in animal studies of myocardial infarction and cardiac arrhythmia. Although cannabinoids show promising effects in animal models, this does not always translate into human studies, and therefore, extensive clinical studies are needed to truly establish their utility in treating cardiovascular disease.
  4,379 421 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway: A critical regulator in tumor-associated macrophage polarization
Thikryat Neamatallah
April-June 2019, 7(2):53-56
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_68_18  PMID:31293885
The notion that inflammation is a critical component of cancer has been researched extensively. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are among the inflammatory cells that greatly influence cancer. In the tumor microenvironment (TME), macrophages can either stimulate or inhibit tumorigenesis. TAMs that stimulate tumor cell proliferation (M2-phenotype) enrich the TME with growth factors and immunosuppressive molecules, whereas tumor inhibitory TAMs (M1-phenotype) initiate the immune response to dampen tumor progression. Shifting between phenotypes is controlled by several components of the TME. Targeting macrophages, specifically inhibiting M2 TAMs, has been introduced successfully in cancer immunotherapy. However, signaling mechanisms underlining TAM polarization are largely unknown. This review analyzed studies of the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) as a determinant of macrophage polarization. It is proposed that activation of MAPK, particularly extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38, might favor the differentiation into M2 TAMs. Thus, pharmacological modification of MAPK pathways will potentially offer exciting new targets in cancer immunotherapy.
  3,889 699 14
REVIEW ARTICLES
Regenerative medicine: Clinical applications and future perspectives
Federica Colombo, Gianluca Sampogna, Giovanni Cocozza, Salman Yousuf Guraya, Antonello Forgione
January-March 2017, 5(1):1-8
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2016.05.002  PMID:30023231
After many years of basic research, regenerative medicine (RM) is now beginning to represent a valuable tool to cure several clinical conditions in both acute injuries and chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to update readers on current clinical applications of some selected organs and pathologies which may benefit from RM. An extensive literature research was performed using PubMed, Google and specialized journals. RM has achieved great successes, but there are still several challenges to tackle before it could be used on a daily basis in clinical practice. The crucial point of this revolution is represented by the appropriate and valid translation from bench to bedside.
  4,010 507 14
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Toxic effects of glyphosate-based herbicide, Excel Mera 71 on gill, liver, and kidney of Heteropneustes fossilis under laboratory and field conditions
Palas Samanta, Aloke Kumar Mukherjee, Sandipan Pal, Debraj Kole, Apurba Ratan Ghosha
July-September 2016, 4(3):147-155
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2016.01.002  PMID:30023221
The effects of glyphosate-based herbicide Excel Mera 71 under field and laboratory conditions were investigated to evaluate the pathological symptoms through light and electron microscopic study in the gill, liver, and kidney of Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) for a period of 30 days. Histological alterations like hypertrophy and fusion in secondary lamellae, damage in chloride cells were more prominent in laboratory conditions under light microscopy. Topological changes such as complete loss of microridges, swelling, and irregular arrangement of microridges in the gills were prominent under scanning electron microscopic study under laboratory conditions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study depicted vacuolation and degeneration in chloride cells, dilation in rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), and mitochondria in gill epithelium. The liver showed enlarged and pyknotic hepatocytes, vacuolation, excess fat deposition, and necrosis under laboratory conditions, while enlarged acentric nuclei, increased sinusoidal space, and less vacuolation in cytoplasm were observed under field conditions. TEM displayed cytoplasmic vacuolation and a reduced number of endoplasmic reticulum and glycogen droplets in the laboratory, but this was less pronounced under field conditions. In the kidneys, loss of hematopoietic tissue, degenerative changes in glomeruli, proximal and distal convoluted tubule, and epithelial cell lining of the renal tubules were comparatively less prominent under field conditions. Under TEM, epithelial cell necrosis, endoplasmic reticulum fragmentation, and mitochondrial degeneration were more prominent under laboratory conditions. The present study evaluated the comparative toxicity under field and laboratory conditions under long-term exposure to glyphosate herbicide and identified pathological responses as indicators in monitoring the herbicidal contamination in aquatic ecosystems.
  4,185 208 21
Ultrastructures of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized using endophytic fungi
Lamabam Sophiya Devi, SR Joshi
January-March 2015, 3(1):29-37
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2014.10.004  PMID:30023179
Three endophytic fungi Aspergillus tamarii PFL2, Aspergillus niger PFR6 and Penicllium ochrochloron PFR8 isolated from an ethno-medicinal plant Potentilla fulgens L. were used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic analysis were performed to study the structural morphology of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles. The electron microscopy study revealed the formation of spherical nanosized silver particles with different sizes. The nanoparticles synthesized using the fungus A. tamarii PFL2 was found to have the smallest average particle size (3.5 ±3 nm) as compared to the nanoparticles biosynthesized using other two fungi A. niger PFR6 and P. ochrochloron PFR8 which produced average particle sizes of 8.7 ±6 nm and 7.7 ±4.3 nm, respectively. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) technique in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy was used for the elemental analysis of the nanoparticles. The selected area diffraction pattern recorded from single particle in the aggregates of nanoparticles revealed that the silver particles are crystalline in nature.
  3,951 412 76
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Histopathological and ultrastructural alterations in some organs of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to glyphosate-based herbicide, excel mera 71
Palas Samanta, Pragya Kumari, Sandipan Pal, Aloke Kumar Mukherjee, Apurba Ratan Ghosh
January-March 2018, 6(1):35-43
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_8_18  PMID:30023265
Oreochromis niloticus was exposed to glyphosate-based herbicide Excel Mera 71 for 30 days under field and laboratory conditions to investigate the histopathological and ultrastructural responses in gill, liver, and kidney. Gill displayed degenerative changes in the pillar cells of gill epithelium, curling of secondary lamella, and appearance of globular structure in laboratory condition under light microscopy. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations revealed loss of microridges, disappearance of normal array of microridges, and damage in stratified epithelial cells under both the conditions, while severe vacuolation and necrosis were prominent under transmission electron microscopic (TEM) study in the laboratory condition. In liver, excess fat deposition and acentric nuclei in the laboratory condition were prominent under light microscopic and SEM study. TEM study showed necrosis in mitochondria, cytoplasmic vacuolation, degeneration in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and reduced amount of glycogen droplets, but under field condition, lesions were less. Kidney showed fragmented glomerulus, excessive fat deposition, and hypertrophied nuclei under light microscope, while topological study showed shrinkage of glomerulus and degenerative changes under laboratory condition. TEM study also confirmed necrosis in mitochondria, dilation and fragmentation of ER, and appearance of severe vacuolation in the laboratory study, but no significant alterations were observed in field under SEM and TEM study. Therefore, the present study depicts that Excel Mera 71 caused comparatively less pathological lesions under field than laboratory condition, and finally, these responses could be considered as bioindicators for toxicity study in aquatic ecosystem.
  3,891 459 9
REVIEW ARTICLES
Helicobacter pylori chronic gastritis updated Sydney grading in relation to endoscopic findings and H. pylori IgG antibody: diagnostic methods
Taha M.M. Hassan, Samia I Al-Najjar, Ibrahim H Al-Zahrani, Fadi I.B. Alanazi, Malek G Alotibi
October-December 2016, 4(4):167-174
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2016.03.004  PMID:30023224
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) inhabits the stomach of > 50% of humans and has been established as a major etiological factor in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, gastric atrophy, peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The aim of this study was to provide unequivocal information about Hp-associated gastritis grading according to the Sydney grading system and to compare the histopathological features with the endoscopic findings and anti-Hp immunoglobulin (Ig)G serological status. This analytical study was conducted on 157 patients with dyspeptic gastritis. All patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and antrum and corpus biopsies were taken. Blood samples were obtained from all participants. Different stains were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks that included hematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa stain for histopathological interpretation. The endoscopic findings of gastritis were observed in 120 patients and most of them showed hyperemia (80 patients), whereas seven patients had normal appearing gastric mucosa. Histologically variable numbers of mononuclear inflammatory cellular infiltrates were seen in 150 cases (95.5%). Most of them showed Grade 1 gastritis (80 patients), whereas Grades 2 and 3 were found in 43 and 27 biopsies, respectively. Hp colonization was observed in most of the examined biopsies (93.7%). Hp-IgG seropositivity was found in 80.9% of cases and 19.1% were seronegative. The relationship between endoscopic and histological findings was significant (p < 0.001).
  3,686 514 17
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in a Saudi University female students
Nora Nasir Al Hassand
January-March 2015, 3(1):25-28
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2014.11.003  PMID:30023178
The study aims to determine the prevalence of anemia in apparently healthy university female students. This study was conducted in 2007–2008 at Taibah University and a total of 268 female students participated in this research. In order to assess iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the venous blood samples were collected from consecutive female students at the medical center of Taibah University excluding those already on iron supplementation for iron-deficiency anemia. One hundred and seventy-one (64%) students were found to be anemic. The overall prevalence of mild (10–11 g/dL), moderate (7–10 g/dL), and severe (Hb <7 g/dL) anemia was 45%, 49%, and 6%, respectively. Out of the anemic students, 81% showed microcytic (MCV <80 fL) and 1.6% had macrocytic (MCV >96 fL) variety. The results of this study warrant further evidence-based surveys on a larger scale to validate these findings and eventually set a stage to develop well-organized educational and nutritional programs to safeguard and improve the nation’s health. The high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in the present study might be related to life style of female students as well as to their dietary habits. It is recommended that female students never skip breakfast as it is essential for their cognitive functions and physical activities.
  3,674 405 26
REVIEW ARTICLE
Factors involved in relapse of multiple sclerosis
Fatemah Omar Kamel
July-September 2019, 7(3):103-108
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_59_18  PMID:31548920
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune disorder, affects the central nervous system (CNS). It affects the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve, leading to problems with vision, balance, muscle control, and other basic bodily functions. MS relapse (MSR) involves an acute inflammatory demyelinating reaction within the CNS. This review focuses on the main factors involved in MSR based on a detailed literature search. Evidence suggests that MSR is influenced by age, sex, pregnancy, serum levels of Vitamin D, interactions between genetic and environmental factors, and infectious diseases. Many of these factors are modifiable and require the attention of patients and health-care providers if favorable outcomes are to be realized. Identification of MSR risk factors can help in the development of therapies that could be used to manage MS and MSR.
  3,528 515 7
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The effect of manganese on the olfactory bulb of adult male albino rat and the role of meloxicam: A histological and immunohistochemical study
Amany M Mousa, Amal A Shehab
January-March 2015, 3(1):8-18
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2014.11.002  PMID:30023176
Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal commonly found in the environment and is used for industrial purposes. Exposure to excessively high Mn levels may induce neurotoxicity referred to as manganism. This work was conducted to study the effect of manganese on the olfactory bulb of adult male albino rat and the possible protective role of meloxicam. Forty adult male albino rats were equally divided into four groups: control group, meloxicam-treated group (5 mg/kg/day orally for 4 weeks), MnCl2-treated group (10 mg/kg/day orally for 4 weeks), and the fourth group received both meloxicam and MnCl2 at the same doses and duration. Specimens of the olfactory bulbs were prepared for light and electron microscopy. An immunohistochemical study with a quantitative morphometry was performed using antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The control group and meloxicam-treated group showed the same normal structure. MnCl2-treated group showed shrinkage of mitral nerve cells with dark peripheral nuclei as well as disorganization of mitral and granule nerve cells. The surrounding neuropil showed vacuolar spaces. Ultrastructurally, the mitral cells showed accumulation of lysosomes, swelling of mitochondria and irregularity of the nuclei. The nerve fibers contained swollen mitochondria with splitting and irregularity of the surrounding myelin sheaths. GFAP immunoreaction showed a highly significant increase compared to control group. On the other hand, the group that received both meloxicam and MnCl2 showed less marked histological changes. It was concluded that manganese induced structural changes in the olfactory bulb of albino rat that were ameliorated by concomitant use of meloxicam.
  3,651 293 4